subject

A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside of itself (called an “object“). A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. This concept is especially important in continental philosophy, where ‘the Subject’ […]

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.[1][2] This sense of the term originated among English-speaking philosophers in the second half of the 20th century, who used it to refer to a range of thinkers and traditions outside the analytic movement. Continental philosophy includes the following movements: German idealism,phenomenology, […]

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fairies don’t exist

Existence First published Wed Oct 10, 2012 Existence raises deep and important problems in metaphysics, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic. Many of the issues can be organized around the following two questions: Is existence a property of individuals? and Assuming that existence is a property of individuals, are there individuals that lack it? Bertrand […]

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Systems thinking

Systems thinking involves the use of various techniques to study systems of many kinds. In nature, examples of the objects of systems thinking include ecosystems – in which various elements (such as air, water, movement, plants, and animals) interact. In organizations, systems consist of people, structures, and processes that operate together to make an organization “healthy” […]

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eristic

In philosophy and rhetoric, eristic (from Eris, the ancient Greek goddess of chaos, strife, and discord) refers to argument that aims to successfully dispute another’s argument, rather than searching for truth. According to T.H. Irwin, “It is characteristic of the eristic to think of some arguments as way of defeating the other side, by showing […]

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Epistemology

Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? EDMUND GETTIER Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. This short piece, published in 1963, seemed to many decisively to refute an otherwise attractive analysis of knowledge. It stimulated a renewed effort, still ongoing, to clarify exactly what knowledge comprises. Gettier problem From Wikipedia, the free […]

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Artificial Intelligence – Depth First Search(DFS)

Depth-first search (DFS) is an algorithm for traversing or searching tree or graph data structures. One starts at the root (selecting some arbitrary node as the root in the case of a graph) and explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking. A version of depth-first search was investigated in the 19th century […]

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Moving Toward Understanding Consciousness

1. Introduction Alva Noë is currently a professor of philosophy at the University of California in Berkeley, CA. His research centers on cognitive science, the origins of analytic philosophy, phenomenology, philosophy of mind, theory of art, theory of perception, and Wittgenstein. 2. Ideas and Comments In science, reductionism means that to discover the mechanism under […]

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