Albert Szent-Györgyi

Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (Hungarian: nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert, pronounced [ˈnɒɟraːpolti ˈsɛnɟørɟi ˈɒlbɛrt]; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian American physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.[1] He is credited with discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He was also active in […]

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Oxytocin

Gene switches make prairie voles fall in love Epigenetic changes affect neurotransmitters that lead to pair-bond formation. Zoe Cormier 02 June 2013 Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;449:215-24. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and the neuroendocrine basis of pair bond formation. Insel TR1, Winslow JT, Wang Z, Young LJ. Author information Abstract Several lines of evidence support a role […]

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Progesterone

Progesterone (abbreviated as P4), also known as pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione,[5][6] is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.[7] It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens,[7] and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate […]

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Proteins

Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acidresidues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication,responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of […]

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Benzodiazepines (BZD)

Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called “benzos“, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche – which, since 1963, has also marketed […]

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter. The name “noradrenaline,” derived from Latin roots meaning “at/alongside the kidneys,” is more commonly used in the United Kingdom; in the United States, “norepinephrine,” derived from […]

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Physiology

Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning “nature, origin”, and -λογία (-logia), meaning “study of”[1]) is the scientific study of the normal function inliving systems.[2] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[3] […]

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, “change”) is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestionand the transport of […]

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Adenine

Adenine /ˈædᵻnᵻn/ (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative). Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry includingcellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component […]

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